This new book, written by energy and transportation specialists from the Jean Monnet Network on Atlantic Studies, explores the nexus between energy and transportation in each of the major continental zones of the Atlantic Basin (Africa, Latin America, Europe and North America) and in the maritime realm of the Atlantic Ocean. Click the links below to access the individual chapters, and “Download” above to access the entire book.
Preface by Daniel S. Hamilton & Renato G. Flôres Jr.
Introduction by Paul Isbell & Eloy Álvarez Pelegry
Chapter 1 – The Co-Transformation of Energy and Transport: Outlook for the Wider Atlantic by R. Andreas Kraemer
Chapter 2 – Electrification, Collaboration, and Cooperation: Managing the Future of Energy and Transportation Systems in the Atlantic Basin by Martin Lowery & Michael Leitman
Chapter 3 – Sustainable Mobility in the European Union: Alternative Fuels for Passenger Transport by Eloy Álvarez Pelegry, Jaime Menéndez Sánchez & Macarena Larrea Basterra
Chapter 4 – The Energy of Transportation: A Focus on Latin American Urban Transportation by Lisa Viscidi & Rebecca O’Connor
Chapter 5 – Prospects for Decarbonizing Transport in Africa by Roger Gorham
Chapter 6 – Atlantic Maritime Transportation and Trade: Impacts on Shipping Transport Emissions and International Regulation by Jordi Bacaria & Natalia Soler-Huici
Chapter 7 – The Greening of Maritime Transportation, Energy and Climate Infrastructures: Role of Atlantic Port-Cities by João Fonseca Ribeiro
Chapter 8 – Conclusion by Paul Isbell and Eloy Álvarez Pelegry
Focus of the Book
The book’s analysis covers both passenger and freight transportation, along with the energy and infrastructure scenarios taking shape for both land-based and maritime transportation in the Atlantic world. It maps out the many differences between the four Atlantic continents with respect to the energy-transportation nexus, but it also highlights the binding potentials – and common imperatives – presented by the maritime realm of the Atlantic Ocean itself. Against the backdrop of climate change, the Paris Agreement and the global imperative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the book evaluates the prospects for the ‘decarbonization’ of the Atlantic transportation sectors.
The book takes as its regional frame of reference the ‘wider Atlantic,’ or the broader ‘Atlantic world’ — also known as the ‘Atlantic Basin’ of the ‘Atlantic Hemisphere’ of Europe, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and North America. This is the broad arc of the West, as some have called the Atlantic Basin, taken in its most pluralist form. This Atlantic framing forms part of a growing body of research and analysis from an emergent ‘epistemic’ and policy community which highlights the insights and benefits of multidisciplinary research and analysis, and of policy and civil society action, undertaken within a ‘pan-Atlantic’ transnational context.
The Jean Monnet Network on Atlantic Studies – a consortium of 10 research institutes from the wider Atlantic world, with the support of the Erasmus+ Programmed of the European Union – is one of the latest embodiments of this community, and this book is the JM Network’s first contribution to the consideration of ‘Atlantic’ energy. This work will now be integrated with further research and analysis by the Network on other interrelated ‘Atlantic’ themes and domains (including economy and trade, and human security concerns, among others).
Structure of the Book
The book is divided into three parts. In Part One, Innovative Perspectives on Energy and Transportation in the Atlantic Basin, R. Andreas Kraemer (Chapter One) provides an analytical outline, both in global and Atlantic terms, of the energy and transportation co-transformations that are now underway, abetted by information and communications technologies (ICT), along with the sectoral, trade and geopolitical implications of where they are heading.
Martin Lowery and Michael Leitman (Chapter Two) analyze the role that dynamic grid transformation could play in these co-transformations, not just in the Northern Atlantic (Europe and North America), but also in the Southern Atlantic (Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean) where — together with the energy cooperative model of energy production, trade and consumption — the ‘dynamic’ grid could catalyze a technological leapfrogging in the form of widescale electrification of energy end-uses based on distributed renewable energy production.
In Part Two, Energy and Land Transportation in the Atlantic Basin, Eloy Álvarez Pelegry, Jaime Menéndez Sánchez, and Macarena Larrea Basterra (Chapter Three) survey the state of alternative fuels for passenger transportation in Europe and, based on their original research study, conclude that electric vehicles and hybrids constitute the best alternatives for the future of European passenger mobility.
Lisa Viscidi and Rebecca O’Connor (Chapter Four) then review the energy and transportation nexus in Latin America and the Caribbean, where transportation emissions are set to more than double by mid-century, and propose more widespread vehicle and fuel efficiency and emissions standards, more public transportation and mass transit, and more policy effort to support renewable energy-fed electrification of transportation, first in public transport and over the long run of the private vehicle fleet.
Finally, Roger Gorham (Chapter Five) analyzes the carbon footprint of African transportation (including key drivers and dynamics, like the carbonizing role of secondhand vehicle imports) and identifies a number of ‘modal shifts’ and smart motorization management policies that have significant decarbonization potential and that could lay the ground for future electrification.
In Part Three, Energy and Transportation in the Maritime Realm of the Atlantic Basin, the focus shifts to the maritime realm. Jordi Bacaria and Natalia Soler-Huici (Chapter Six) analyze the history and drivers of maritime GHG and air pollutant emissions, evaluate the role of the International Maritime Organization in addressing such emissions, and propose Atlantic Basin cooperation, led by the European Union, to reduce maritime emissions at a faster rate in the Atlantic.
João Fonseca Ribeiro focuses on the strategic potential of port-cities as policy fulcrums for the decarbonization of energy and transportation in the Atlantic Basin, and proposes pan-Atlantic cooperation—spearheaded by Europe—among Atlantic Basin port-cities for the greening of maritime energy, transportation, and climate change infrastructures.
Conclusions and Recommendations
One of the book’s central findings is that at this energy-transportation nexus — where energy fuels transportation, and where transportation policies, patterns, modalities, and infrastructures condition how and which energies are used — a series of sectoral transformations are unfolding. Catalyzed by new information and communications technologies (ICT), these transformations – now embracing energy, transportation, manufacturing, trade and the maritime realm – increasingly overlap and are now close to a point of intersection in a multifaceted energy and transportation ‘co-transformation.’
This co-transformation structurally favors renewable and low carbon energy, a transformed consumer-centric and more resilient ‘dynamic’ grid, and progressive electrification and decarbonization of transportation. It offers the most viable path – as a multi-sectoral systemic change – to decarbonization of the global economy sufficiently to successfully defend the 2-degree guardrail, a commitment yet again reiterated in the Paris Agreement. Co-transformation, to the extent that it unfolds, will be increasingly electricity-based and ICT-arbitered and managed, with major transformational impacts in manufacturing, trade, the maritime sectors, in addition to energy and transportation.
Among the book’s recommendations for policy and collaboration are proposals for a number of pan-Atlantic transnational cooperation schemes – a series of Pan-Atlantic Forums on the intersection of energy, transportation and maritime concerns in the Atlantic Basin.