Dr. Benedikt Harzl will address the various pitfalls of engaging, as well as not engaging, with the de facto
states or unrecognized entities of the South Caucasus, which have formed as outcomes of wars in the ‘90s.

While the secessionist conflict parties like Abkhazia or Nagorno-Karabakh may have won the “first round”
of military victories in the 1990s, parent states such as Georgia may have more influence in the long run,
particularly by preventing the de facto state from making effective use of its war-won assets. This
unstable equilibrium is not sustainable in the long run. Conflict resolution and public international law in
this region are hindered by limited conceptions of sovereignty and ownership. New ideas and momentum
are needed for conflict transformation.

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